Genetics - DNA
Chromosomes Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Gene mutation linked to distinct type of autism - NHS Choices
DNA Made Simple - Genetic Series
by T. R. Âû
In 1962, scientists Francis Crick and James Watson were awarded the Nobel prize for their roles in discovering the structure of DNA, which is an acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid. Anything that is alive, from bacteria to elephants, has DNA. DNA stores genetic material and passes it on to the next generation.
'DNA Structure' in Words
The DNA structure consists of two chainlike molecules (polynucleotides) that twist around each other to form the classic double-helix (Photo adjacent).The cell’s machinery forms polynucleotide chains by linking together four nucleotides. The nucleotides which are used to build DNA chains are adenosine (A), guanosine (G), cytidine (C), and thymidine (T) ( See Photos below).
DNA houses the information required to make all the polypeptides used by the cell. The sequence of nucleotides in DNA strands (called a ‘gene’) specifies the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains ( Photo Adjacent).
DNA is a huge molecule called a macromolecule. However, DNA fits into small cells because it is packed in a process called supercoiling, in which DNA is wrapped around proteins called nucleosomes. Proteins called histones hold the coils together.